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The PDK in details

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In the PDK, we design and develop basic and generic components that offer fundamental func- tionalities for PIMS. We release them as SDKs with the goal of streamlining PIMS development and integration. We describe them in Figure 1 and discuss them in the following sections.

In the PDK, we design and develop basic and generic components that offer fundamental func- tionalities for PIMS. We release them as SDKs with the goal of streamlining PIMS development and integration. We describe them in Figure 1 and discuss them in the following sections.

Tools to improve users’ Privacy
These PDK modules aim to improve user privacy from various points of view. They are designed to provide users with a simple and intuitive in- terface and enable transparent data management. Users can use Personal Data Safe (P-DS) to securely store their personal data and eventu- ally allow data buyers to access them through the Personal Consent Manager (P-CM). Details about data buyers can be found in the Personal Privacy Metrics (P-PM) dashboard, along with details about the purpose of data buying cam- paigns. Finally, Personal Privacy-Preserving An- alytics (P-PPA) provide data buyers access to ag- gregated and anonymized data by implementing anonymization via well-known approaches such as k-anonymity [10], differential privacy [11], or z-anonimity for streams [12].

Tools for a User-Centric Data Market
Currently, users are not part of the data market. Conversely, they are external actors who merely provide the assets but have no influence or de- cision power. In this scenario, the value of end- users is determined solely by the market, i.e., the price that data buyers are willing to pay for a given end-user’s data. However, in the human- centric data economy envisioned by PDK, this one-sided vision is no longer valid. Conversely, end-users must have control over their data and have the last word on what they are willing to share and with which third parties. Hence, we come into a new scenario with two sides: the market and the users. To this end, we offer the Data Valuation Tools (D-VT), which are able to derive the value of end-user data from the two perspectives mentioned above: Market and End User perspective, i.e. how much the data is worth for the buyer and for the end user, respectively. We also provide a Data Trading Engine (D- TE) that can be integrated as part of the PIMS infrastructure to trade end-user data within the ecosystem. It enables the users to offer their data in a marketplace and data buyers to search for data and make offers that users can accept. Each transaction is recorded using blockchain technology, with eventual payment in the form of (virtual) coins.

Tools for Data Management
Due to the variety of devices and data sources available, it is challenging to import, process and aggregate data in a standardised, scalable and privacy-preserving manner. To this end, we offer the Data Aggregation (DA) tools to bulk insert personal data into a PIMS and the Data Portabil- ity Control (DPC) to allow users to seamlessly migrate to a new PIMS, supporting direct import from Facebook or Google, for example. The Data Provenance tool (DP) allows hard-to-remove watermarks to be inserted into datasets to prove their ownership later. It also supports text. Finally, the Data Knowledge Extraction (DKE) engine builds privacy-preserving models from data by supporting, for example, the creation of user profiles that contain their interests as extracted from their respective users’ browsing history.