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Use Cases and Applications

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The PDK modules can be used individually or, better, in cooperation. They can be combined in multiple ways to implement different PIMS archi- tectures or data processing pipelines in general. Here we discuss two possibilities that we consider to be the most common use cases for the PDK.

The PDK modules can be used individually or, better, in cooperation. They can be combined in multiple ways to implement different PIMS archi- tectures or data processing pipelines in general. Here we discuss two possibilities that we consider to be the most common use cases for the PDK.

A Fully-Fledged PIMS
With a combination of our PDK modules, it is possible to start a new data business and build a new PIMS prototype without having to de- velop all the components from scratch. With the PDK, one can easily implement a fully-fledged PIMS that allows (i) users to control, store, and monetize their data, and (ii) stakeholders to buy personal information in a transparent way. In Figure 2, we show how the modules work together. Each user can store her data in the P- DS. This allows them to have structured, well- organized information about the data they provide to the system. With the help of the DPC, they can import/export their data from/to another PIMS company. Through the P-CM, the user can specify what types of data they are willing to share, to what class of data buyers, and in what form (raw, aggregated). The DP module can watermark the datasets before they are sold through the DTE to keep the ownership of the data verifiable in a healthy data economy model. In this way, users have a single interface to manage their data in a clear and consistent framework. When a data buyer is interested in the users’ data, the D-TE handles the request and operations, calculates the data value with the D-VT and collects users’ consent on the P-CM, and offers the user a fair compensation. With this in place, any user can consult the easy-to-understand P-PM to learn about the purpose of the data purchase. This transforms the user from a passive actor in the data exchange ecosystem to a main actor with full control of their data and its use in the open marketplace.

A PIMS for societal benefit
We propose a second use case that can be covered by a different combination of the PDK modules. In this case, illustrated in Figure 3, a PIMS settles in the premises of a company that holds personal data as a consequence of its business. This is the case, for example, with telecommunications companies that have access to mobile customer location data, or online stores that have customer purchase history. It is common for companies to collect these data for technical or marketing reasons. However, there is a lack of standard means and tools to share them with third parties in a controlled and transparent way after cus- tomer consent. The use case outlined in Figure 3 encourages users to share their personal data in exchange for a reward from the company, which can be statically determined (e.g., a discount on the monthly subscription) or dynamically defined using the DVT (not shown in the figure). In this scenario, customers can opt-in using the P-CM, giving the company the right to share their data with third parties. Upon consent, the P-DS stores users’ data using the DA module to perform a bulk transfer from the company’s systems. The P-PPA allows third parties to perform privacy- preserving queries that aggregate data from mul- tiple customers and obtain an anonymized version of a portion of the dataset. The identity and per- sonal information of individual customers are thus protected. Finally, the DKE can enrich the raw data by creating user profiles. Interested stake- holders, such as companies or research bodies, can access the system to collect anonymized data and perform their own analytics. The provisioning can be done in an offline mode (i.e., the data analysis is performed once and published) or in an online mode (i.e., the party interested in the data requests a specific data analysis).